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Directions to the Protein Factory
Romanian cell biologists George Emil Palade discovers and begins to examine ribosomes, large complexes of RNA and protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell. A year later, Paul Zamecnik determines that ribosomes are the sites at which amino acids are incorporated into protein molecules. The finding advances bioscientific understandings of genetic transcription and translation, and the molecular basis of genetic inheritance, but it also formulates a new question of research – how does the information encoded in DNA travel from chromosomes in the cell nucleus through the cytoplasm to ribosomes in the endoplasmic reticulum? In 1974, Palade is awarded a Nobel Prize for "discoveries concerning the functional organization of cells."